On the South Coast of NSW near the port of Eden, shore-based whale hunting was a thriving industry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Whalers hunted baleen whales (mostly humpback and southern right whales) for their blubber and bones as well as their baleen which was used in the manufacture of women’s clothes.
A group of killer whales in this area was known for its cooperation with human whalers in hunting other species. The killer whales' partnership with humans lasted from the 1840s until 1930.
More images and information on the Eden Killer whales can be found in Australian Whaling History page.
The killer whale pod was led by a large male with a distinctive dorsal fin called Old Tom. The killer whale pod would intercept baleen whales on their migration journey and then, working as a team, would shepherd them into Twofold Bay.
Once the whale was contained within the bay, the orcas would alert the whalers by breaching or tail slapping at the mouth of the Kiah River, just outside the whalers' cottages.
Whalers then launched their wooden hulled rowing boats and rowed to where Old Tom and his pod held the whale entrapped. Following the harpooning of the baleen whale, the killer whales sometimes grabbed the ropes that attached the harpoon to the boat in their teeth and helped to haul the dead baleen whale to shore. The wear marks made by the rope can still be seen in the teeth of the skeleton of Old Tom, which is on display at the Eden Killer Whale Museum.
In return for their help, the killer whales were fed the tongue and lips of the baleen whales (a favourite part of their diet).
Many of the Eden killer whales were individually named. There was Old Tom, Hooky, Humpy (died 1927), Cooper, Typee (died 1901), Jackson, Stranger, Big Ben, Young Ben, Kinscher, Jimmy, Sharkey, Charlie Adgery, Brierly, Albert, Youngster, Walker, Big Jack, Little Jack, Skinner and Montague.
By 1930, shore-based and offshore whaling had reduced humpback stocks significantly. This resulted in a reduction in the number of orcas in Old Tom’s group. On 17th September 1930 the old whale returned to its favoured hunting area to die. Upon finding the body of Old Tom in the water, local whalers decided to preserve the skeleton.
The killer whale-human partnership lasted for almost 90 years. It is a unique example of whales and humans working together.